January 31, 2023

Electrical pressure and gear area analysis: environment friendly integration turns into a megatrend, and integration with different domain names makes energy area more potent.

Electrical pressure techniques have long past via a number of building levels from unbiased module, integration of motor and transmission, and partial integration of ECU, motor and transmission, to three-in-one and X-in-one integration. Within the pattern in opposition to “utility explained automobiles”, E/E architectures have a tendency to be area controller centralized and centralized ones. Electrical pressure techniques evolve from typical “three-in-one integration” on the mechanical stage to “X-in-one integration” on the energy electronics + “utility integration” on the energy area stage. Steady deep FOTA updates choose the easier efficiency of car energy techniques.

OEMs: boost up mass manufacturing of environment friendly and clever electrical pressure machine answers.

When settling on electrical pressure answers, OEMs will imagine 5 elements – energy density, integration stage, potency, protection and intelligence. Those elements are of number one significance whether or not OEMs make a choice to self-develop or purchase from different parts producers. Within the subsequent level, new applied sciences corresponding to X-in-one built-in electrical pressure, 800V voltage platform, SiC/GaN energy units and gear area will give a large spice up to the electrical pressure machine trade.

BYD’s “eight-in-one” electrical powertrain: in 2021, BYD presented an eight-in-one electrical powertrain in line with e3.0 platform. The excessive integration of motor, transmission, motor controller, PDU, DC-DC, OBC, VCU and BMS additional decreases the gap utilization and weight of the machine. When put next with the former era, the answer options 20% upper energy density, 15% lighter weight, 20% smaller dimension, and general potency as much as 89%.

As an automaker, BYD builds 400V medium-voltage and 800V high-voltage automobiles at the similar platform. The unbiased spice up instrument and reusable pressure machine energy units represent a spice up charging topology that allows modular spice up structure. The high-voltage platform adopts 1200V/840A SiC energy modules that permit 60% smaller dimension, 70% decrease switching loss, and electrical keep an eye on machine potency as much as 99.7%, relative to IGBT controllers.

NIO’s second-generation electrical pressure machine: NIO has established the direction of entrance everlasting magnet synchronous motor and rear induction asynchronous motor. The utmost energy of the everlasting magnet synchronous motor and the induction asynchronous motor reaches 180KW and 300KW, respectively. NIO chooses ON Semiconductor’s newest VE-Trac? Direct SiC energy modules for the entrance everlasting magnet synchronous motor of its second-generation electrical pressure machine.

NIO’s electrical pressure techniques are supplied via its subsidiary Shanghai XPT Generation Restricted. XPT has made a one-line, multi-site production format in Nanjing, Shanghai and Hefei.

Elements producers: deploy new electrical pressure machine merchandise and expedite technological iteration.

As “three-in-one” built-in electrical pressure techniques mature, the next move can be to reach “X-in-one integration” on the energy electronics stage, this is, deep integration of on-board charger (OBC), high-voltage DC/DC converter, inverter and gear distribution unit (PDU). Tier 1 providers compete to release new electrical pressure machine merchandise.

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Shanghai Edrive’s GaN “three-in-one” electrical powertrain: in November 2021, Shanghai Edrive displayed its GaN three-in-one electrical powertrain at Nexperia’s sales space. The sought-after product boasts a lot upper potency than typical silicon-based IGBT motor controllers in the similar operating prerequisites. The utmost potency of GaN-based motor controller reaches 99.34%, and the world with potency more than 90% accounts for 93.58%; that of silicon-based IGBT motor controllers is 98.3%, and the world with potency more than 90% makes up is 83.94%.

Huawei’s “X-in-one” electrical pressure machine DriveONE: it integrates seven primary parts, i.e., BCU (battery keep an eye on unit), PDU (energy pressure unit), DCDC (pressure energy), MCU (microcontroller unit), OBC (on-board charger), motor, and reducer, enabling the deep integration of mechanical and gear parts. With its superiority in utility, Huawei additionally brings intelligence into its electrical pressure techniques in a bid for integration of terminal-cloud cooperation and keep an eye on. This X-in-one electrical pressure machine achieves the purpose of lowering quantity via 20% and the burden via 15%, lowers building value and realizes matching of car entrance and rear wheel drives.

Vitesco Applied sciences’ fourth-generation electrical pressure machine EMR4: in July 2021, Vitesco Applied sciences, Continental’s former Powertrain Department, unveiled EMR4, its fourth-generation product that provides excessive energy density, compact dimensions, and occasional weight and covers an influence fluctuate of 80 kW to 230 kW. When put next with EMR3, EMR4 allows 5% upper potency, 30% lower price and 25% lighter weight, and will elevate two high-voltage platforms, 400V and 800V.

Building Tendencies of Electrical Power Device Generation

-“3-in-one” electrical drives stay evolving in opposition to “X-in-one” built-in electrical drives.

The traditional “three-in-one” electrical pressure generation will evolve in opposition to “3+3+X platform”, this is, a three-in-one electrical pressure machine (motor, transmission and motor controller) and a three-in-one high-voltage charging and distribution machine (DC/DC, OBC and PDU) are mixed as a “six-in-one” product, or additional combine with BCU (battery keep an eye on unit) and VCU (car keep an eye on unit) amongst others to represent a “seven-in-one” or “eight-in-one” product, reaching deep integration of mechanical and gear parts.

In the meantime, the electrical pressure and the car thermal control machine are additional hooked up and built-in to shape an effective built-in electrical thermal control machine. The combination with cooling machine composed of motor, digital keep an eye on, reducer, DC and gear provide, and unified thermal control permit warmth supply integration, cut back warmth trade and warmth loss, and beef up warmth absorption potency of warmth pump, so that you could lengthen the cruising fluctuate of electrical automobiles.

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But X-in-one techniques nonetheless face technical demanding situations (e.g., thermal control, electromagnetic interference and failure charge), and the price is excessive. At the present, only some providers (Huawei, BYD, and so forth.) have the techniques heavily produced and have compatibility on automobiles. X-in-one techniques will nonetheless be a R&D precedence of OEMs and Tier 1 providers someday.

-The penetration charge of flat twine motors surges.

Flat twine motors supply advantages of excessive energy density, low value, and excellent temperature efficiency. International automakers have carried out flat twine motor generation early. In 2021, flat twine motors shone in China. Reasonably a couple of blockbuster fashions together with Tesla Type 3/Type Y, Volkswagen MEB-based automobiles, NIO ET7, IM L7, ZEEKR 001, and Nice Wall ORA Black Cat carried flat twine motors. The full penetration charge of flat twine motors has approached 20%.

Flat twine motors require excessive ranges of procedure, production generation and kit automation. Chinese language providers corresponding to Zhejiang Founder Motor, FinDreams Powertrain, HYCET E-Power and Huayu E-drive have completed mass manufacturing of flat twine motors.

In BYD’s case, when put next with previous-generation that makes use of spherical twine motors, BYD e3.0 adopts hairpin flat twine everlasting magnet synchronous motors with upper copper house issue, decrease copper loss, and an influence protection fluctuate of 70-270kW. The ultra-thin silicon metal sheet used to inhibit iron loss contributes to a 40% building up within the motor energy and the utmost potency as much as 97.5%. When it comes to deceleration mechanism, low-friction bearings and oil information construction are used to beef up lubrication impact and cut back oil churning loss. The fantastic equipment design is helping to chop equipment sliding loss. Additionally, low-viscosity oil is presented for the primary time, making the transmission potency as much as 97.6%.

-The mass manufacturing of 800V SiC excessive voltage platforms is speeded up.

Chinese language automakers race to observe up on 800V high-voltage platform structure, and reach mass manufacturing and supply in 2022. Xpeng Motors adopts 800V SiC high-voltage merchandise from Inovance Generation. Xpeng G9 packing XPower 3.0 energy machine supplies two choices: 2WD unmarried motor (most energy: 230kW (312HP)) and four wheel drive twin motor (most energy: 175kW (238HP) / 230kW (312HP)). The potency of the electrical pressure machine can succeed in as excessive as over 95%. 

-Multi-stage equipment reducer generation

There’s a transparent pattern of high-speed motors, making reducers head within the path of two-stage equipment deceleration. At the present, the motors of Tesla Type 3 ship rotating velocity of as much as 17900rpm; maximum automakers in China have reached 16000rpm and plan 18000-20000rpm. Top velocity motors on the other hand require the strengthen of multi-stage equipment reducer generation.

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Two-stage equipment reducers utilized in hybrid techniques to start with are actually observed in all-electric techniques. When put next with the single-stage equipment reducers, two-stage equipment reducers permit pressure motors to run in a extra environment friendly house, thereby making improvements to the potency of the pressure machine. Alternatively, using two-stage equipment reducers favors upper equipment ratio, higher car dynamic houses and shorter 0-100km/h acceleration time.

As well as, using two gears makes pressure motors extra miniaturized and run at decrease speeds, thus lowering the price of motors and ECUs. ZF, GKN, Magna and prefer have rolled out two-stage equipment reducer merchandise.

-Energy area controllers additional evolve in opposition to area controller centralized and central computing + zonal architectures.

Lately, the three-in-one built-in electrical pressure has transform a mainstream resolution within the trade. As “software-defined automobiles” evolve, E/E architectures have a tendency to be area controller centralized and centralized ones. Numerous OEMs and parts producers have carried out three-domain structure, involving: car keep an eye on area, clever using area and clever cockpit area. The car area controller (VDC) is built-in into the 3 practical domain names: chassis area, energy area, and frame area.

Unbiased energy area controller: the ability area combines car controller, motor controller, BMS, on-board charger controller, and so forth. as an example, NETA Auto’s energy area keep an eye on machine (PDCS) integrates utility and {hardware} purposes and algorithms of VCU (car keep an eye on unit) and BMS (battery control machine), and makes use of Infineon multi-core CPU/GPU in {hardware} structure. The machine supplies greater code space for storing, better and securer computing energy, and an abundance of enter and output conversation ports, and helps quite a lot of types of composite packages and OTA replace functions. Within the utility structure, the AUTOSAR structure + MBD modeling utility makes utility a lot more dependable and conveyable.

Pass-domain fusion central area centralized structure: in Li Auto’s case, LEEA2.0, the area controller structure utilized in Li L9, options 3 car keep an eye on domain names, of which the central keep an eye on area (together with energy, frame and a few chassis purposes) allows the combination of the frame keep an eye on module (BCM) and the central gateway.

Li L9’s central area controller makes use of NXP’s newest S32G automotive-grade chip. The entire {hardware}, techniques and utility for the controller are self-developed via Li Auto. The purposes corresponding to range-extended electrical machine, air con machine, chassis machine and seat keep an eye on machine also are independently evolved via the automaker, which higher guarantees the scope and timeliness of OTA updates on Li L9 someday.